What is Matrixyl?

Two branches of dermatological research lead to the discovery of Matrixyl. One branch was researching substances that would help skin wounds heal faster, and the other was a study for the underlying causes of wrinkles in an effort to find a way to prevent or erase them. The Matrixyl synthetic peptide is commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products designed to reduce or prevent wrinkles and maintain a youthful appearance to the skin. Peptides are protein fragments that interact and affect cells. When used in cosmetics, Matrixyl is often combined with Argireline. The peptide Argireline reduces the appearance of wrinkles by paralyzing the muscles of the face a bit, so there are fewer expression lines, while Matrixyl works to promote the growth of collagen, elastin, and glucosaminoglycans.

Matrixyl Scientific Information

Molecular Formula: C39H75N7O10

Molecular Sequence: Pal-Lys-Thr-Thr-Ser-OH or Pal-KTTS-OH

Also known as: almitoyl pentapeptide-3


Because Matrixyl is a molecule that is identical to another molecule but has different atomic components, it is considered an isomer. The active element found within Matrixyl is another peptide called Micro-collagen. Matrixyl is also a lipopeptide, which is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids.
Continue reading

What is Snap 8?

Snap 8 is an octapeptide strand of eight amino acids that is studied for its potential to prevent the formation of wrinkles and lines on faces. The peptide is created by the cosmetic company Kinerase, and is considered 30% more effective than Argireline.


Who is Kinerase?

Kinerase is a cosmetic line of products that are designed to make skin look and feel younger and healthier. Kinerase products contain both over-the-counter and cosmetic ingredients, including Snap 8, and do not require a prescription to obtain.


What is Argireline?

Snap 8 is an elongation of the hexapeptide, acetyl hexapeptide-3, otherwise known as Argireline. It’s been nicknamed the “anti-wrinkle peptide”. Argireline is a peptide that prevents the formation of wrinkles around the eyes, brow, nose, and mouth – all of the areas of the face that allow us to make expressions and display emotion. How does it prevent wrinkles and lines? Argireline inhibits muscle movement, and has earned the name “Botox in a jar” as a result – but Botox and Argireline work differently.
Botox boosts collagen and helps repair skin to reduce lines and wrinkles. Argireline and Snap 8 work by mimicking the proteins found in the SNARE complex and destabilizing it to prevent muscle movement. If you can’t frown, you won’t have wrinkles from frowning.
Continue reading

Pramipexole Dihydrochloride



Pramipexole dihydrochloride is something relatively new to the general populous.  The FDA recently released some guidance compliance information as a piece of regulation as the substance floods into modern medicine.  As time marches on, so does medical science.  Pramipexole dihydrochloride has been found to be extremely effective when it comes to wrestles leg syndrome and Parkinson’s disease.  Most commonly, the drug is marketed under the name Mirapex.

Mirapex, the generic brands, and pramipexole dihydrochloride in general is made up firstly of pramipexole.  Pramipexole is a nonergot dopamine agonist that has been found to reduce the effects of early Parkinson’s disease.  Over the course of the past 10 years, pramipexole has become the preferred method of slowing the progression of the horrendous degenerative disorder, of which there is currently no cure.  The medical community is currently trying to tackle other neurological diseases, specifically those without cures, so that relief may be provided for those showing signs of early stages of these diseases.

Hydrochloride, at its very base definition is any hydrochloride formed by the reaction with two molecules of hydrochloric acid.  Combining hydrochloric acid and pramipexole results in the creation of pramipexole dihydrochloride.  Pramipexole dihydrochloride’s mechanism of action when it comes to treatment of neurological disorders is yet unknown!  Studies in animals imply that it can stimulate dopamine receptors in the striatum.  The corpus striatum is the part of your brain that comprises of caudate and lentiform nuclei.  Without this, we lose motor function and other cognitive bits of our body that we take advantage in every day life.
Continue reading


What is it?

ACE-031 is technically a protein.  It’s categorized in the protein family.  ACE-031 is also called ACVR2B, in many texts.  This protein is currently being tested to see if we can utilize it to build strength in animals and perhaps eventually, in humans.  There have been some promising studies that imply it can be used therapeutically to destroy other proteins and molecules that limit muscle growth and muscle strength.  Since ACE-031 is a human-engineered protein, it’s not actually part of the proteome project.

ACE-031 is actually formed when a bit of the ActRIIB receptor and the antibody are fused together.  This fusion makes a pho version of the ActRIIB that will take down proteins like myostatin and the other types of molecules that prohibit the muscle’s ability to strengthen, regenerate, and grow.  Basically, ACE-031 is used to make muscles not understand that there is a natural period in which we don’t produce muscle mass by blocking out the myostatin, stopping it from communicating with the muscle cells.



Only in the last decade or so has ACE-031 been tested on humans.  In a 2012 study, it was found to increase muscle mass in postmenopausal women after just a single dosing.  For the purpose of this study, it was determined that all of the subjects were “healthy” and didn’t have any form of surgery in the past few months.  There are various reports and studies proving that the use of ACE-031 drastically increases the muscular growth in animals, specifically in mammals.
Continue reading

What is Levothyroxine?

Levothyroxine is a medication that replaces the hormone that is naturally produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid hormone regulates the body’s metabolism and energy levels. In cases where the thyroid gland does not naturally produce enough of this hormone for the body to function properly a medication may be used. The brand names for levothyroxine include levoxyl, synthroid, tirosint and unithroid.

Levothyroxine treats hypothyroidism or what is commonly known as low thyroid. It may also be used to treat other thyroid related problems such as goiter or enlarged thyroid gland. In addition to the natural imbalance in hormones, thyroid conditions may also be caused by other factors such as cancer, surgeries, or radiation treatments. Symptoms that are often seen as a result of a lack of the thyroid hormone may include decreased energy, a low metabolism, dry skin, hair loss and often feeling cold. Balanced thyroid levels are essential for the body to function and perform optimally.

Levothyroxine use can be harmful if a person has certain pervasive medical circumstances or untreated conditions such as signs or symptoms relating to a heart attack, uncontrolled adrenal gland disorder or thyrotoxicosis. Inform your medical providers before starting levothyroxine if you have diabetes, high blood pressure or have experienced excessive hair loss or had symptoms of a heart attack. The regulation of the dosage is essential for safety and the effectiveness of the medication.
Continue reading

What is Pramipexole?

Pramipexole is a medical compound that activates dopamine receptors in the brain. This allows for the activation of signaling pathways. Dopamine is a naturally occurring chemical in human and animal brains. The chemical serves as a neurotransmitter for bodily messages. It is often associated with reward-motivation behaviors and feelings of joy or satisfaction. However, it is also an important part of the body’s motor functions. Dopamine mediates the release of hormones central to allowing the body’s movement.

Low levels of dopamine are symptomatic of conditions like Parkinson’s disease and Restless Leg Syndrome. Treatment of these conditions often uses medical forms of dopamine agonists, like pramipexole. Multiple studies exist on pramipexole, testing its efficacy in treating Parkinson’s and Restless Leg Syndrome. Studies have also investigated using pramipexole to treat forms of depression and bipolar disorder.[1]


What are Dopamine Agonists?

Dopamine agonists are compounds that activate dopamine receptors. This in turn activate signaling pathways. Medicines that aid in the treatment of hypodopaminergic (low dopamine) conditions use these compounds. In comparison to other drugs used to treat low dopamine, such as levodopa, dopamine agonists mimic the effects of dopamine without needing conversion.
Continue reading

What is Liothyronine?

Liothyronine is the generic name for a medication used to treat hypothyroidism or what is otherwise known as under active thyroid.  The common brand name for the medication is Cytomel.  The body requires a certain level of the hormone thyroid to stay healthy.  At times the body may produce too much or not enough thyroid hormone to function property. If problems with thyroid levels are not addressed it can prevent normal growth, development and functionality.  Too much or too little thyroid hormone in the body can have effects on how a person acts and feels. Many patients often find the perfect balance with medication supplements such as liothyronine.  There are known cases where the medication liothyronine is also used to treat certain types of depression.


A lack of thyroid hormone can occur naturally or because the thyroid gland becomes injured or disrupted due to other medications, injury, radiation treatment or because the thyroid it has been removed.  Liothyronine is a medication that is commonly used to replace the thyroid hormone in the body. Liothyronine is also used to treat other thyroid problems such as diseases in the thyroid, cancer or goiters and in some cases it can treat infertility if they are caused by low thyroid hormone levels in the body.

Liothyronine comes in tablet form and is for use by mouth and should be taken with 8 ounces of water and can be taken with or without food. Users should take the medication at the same time each day for consistency.  The dosage will be based on your specific condition and may be adjusted based on your body’s response to the medication. Regular testing of the thyroid levels will be done to check thyroid levels and adjust if and as necessary for optimal response.  It is typical that patients who use this medication to regulate thyroid hormones will take it for their entire life.
Continue reading

What is Dutasteride?

Dutasteride is the generic name of a medication that is typically used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with enlarged prostate. It is a triple 5a-reductase inhibitor that inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestostene (DHT) in the body, which is involved in the development of BPH. This medication has been used as treatment for other conditions but primarily it is used to treat BPH. Avodart is the brand name for dutasteride, which is manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline.

Dutasteride works to treat symptoms and improve conditions in men with BPH.  It helps to improve urinary flow, which in turn may reduce the future need for prostate surgery.  While the medication works to reduce the need for prostate surgery, it also may increase the risk for prostate cancer, which is a potential side effect of the medication.  Doctors will do tests in advance of starting the medication to ensure that pre-existing conditions or contraindications with other medications do not interfere with the safe use of dutasteride.

It is always important before starting dutasteride to inform your doctor of all medical conditions and currently prescribed medication. Patients should also inform their doctor that if they have had allergic reactions to this medication as well as other similar medications such as finasteride also known as Propecia or Proscar. Dutasteride is sometimes given as a part of an entire medication regime.  It is common to couple Dutasteride with a medication called tamsulosin or Flomax.
Continue reading

What is Clomiphene?

Clomiphene is a non-steroid fertility medication. Some other common names for this medication include Clomid, Clomiphene Citrate or Serophene. This medication is the one most commonly used to treat infertility. Originally its purpose was to primarily treat anovulation. This medication is used to stimulate the pituitary gland causing the release of hormones that will in turn stimulate ovulation in women do not ovulate naturally. It is also used for women with ovulatory dysfunction.

Clomiphene is often a first step to treating infertility. Clomiphene is taken for 5 days during the menstrual cycle. A specialist will determine the right course of treatment and the days of the menstrual cycle that are best to start the medication each month.  Clomiphene is usually started as a course of infertility treatment prior to moving to more aggressive methods of fertility treatments or drugs. It is not uncommon for Clomiphene to be used by specialists in combination with other methods such as intrauterine insemination.

The medication works naturally with the menstrual cycle. This medication may increase the chance for pregnancy, especially in women who already ovulate on their own. Statistics show that Clomiphene offers an 80% chance of ovulating within the first three months of taking the medication.  It is during this ovulation that many women have increased their changes for pregnancy to 50% in the first six months of starting the medication.
Continue reading

What is Letrozole?

Letrozole is a drug that within a class of medications known as aromatase inhibitors and goes by the trade name Femara. It has been extensively used with women suffering from breast cancer, after having surgery for the disease. Another FDA-approved use for letrozole is for use with women suffering fertility problems and having trouble conceiving.  It has been preferred over the long time use of the drug clomiphene citrate because letrozole does not stay in the body as long and produces fewer side effects.

As a breast cancer treatment, letrozole works mainly in post-menopausal women with particular types of cancer, such as hormone-receptor-positive. Estrogen causes certain types of breast cancer to spread faster, and letrozole works by decreasing the amount of estrogen the body produces and aids in slowing or reversing the advancement of these cancers. It is not known to work for hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer.

The drug is specifically used to treat women who are postmenopausal with early-stage breast cancer, immediately after surgery or in some cases, after chemotherapy and radiation. In other cases, its used with postmenopausal women who have received 5 years of tamoxifen to lower the chances of hormone-receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer returning. Women who have metastatic or advanced-stage hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer can also benefit from taking letrozole.
Continue reading