Rare YK11 Compound is a SARM

What are SARMs? Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators = SARMs. Androgens are hormones that act as molecules or ions to bind to the cellular androgen receptors and the receptors are involved in transmitting complex signals that result in greater expressions of specific genes. When bodybuilders, athletes, or people with muscle wasting diseases ranging from cancer to osteoporosis partake in anabolic steroids to increase their muscles, the binding of androgen hormones to the androgen receptor is what results in more muscle and decreased body fat. Drugs and substances that block or stimulate the androgen receptor are called “selective receptor modulators”.

YK11 is a rate compound that was first studied by researcher Yuichiro Kanno of Toho University in 2011. Initial studies confirmed that the compound is in fact a SARM. YK11 attaches to the androgen receptor. Kanno’s published report of the results from this study exposed that muscle cells exposed to YK11 create more anabolic effects at 500 nanomoles than when exposed to DHT and other similar compounds at the same amount.

Chemical Composition of YK11


Research Chemical: YK-11

YK-11 is researched heavily in Japan by researchers and chemists determined to find out what the potential benefits of the SARM may be for future human use in pharmaceutical products. Initial studies have discovered that YK11 is a potent SARM in terms of creating anabolic effects in the body that lead to muscle enhancement while inhibiting myostatin effects. The potential for YK11 to be used in the treatment of diseases causing muscle waste is something researchers are considering further.

YK11 is Similar to Testosterone

Testosterone is an androgen, naturally occurring steroid hormone in the body. Medically, it can be used to treat breast cancer or treat male hypogonadism. Athletes and bodybuilders sometimes use it illegally to increase athletic ability. Steroids can cause undesirable side effects including changes in sexual function, sleep disturbances, increased body fat, reduced muscle bulk and strength, and decreased self-confidence and motivation.

Most SARMs have limited androgenic side effects, but often have several anabolic effects similar to that of testosterone. YK11 causes muscle cells to create more of the protein follistatin, a myostatin inhibitor.  Myostatin is a protein that limits the growth and production of muscle tissues. Inhibiting myostatin improves the body’s ability to create leaner and bigger muscle tissue. Follistatin is expressed in nearly all tissues of animals. Follistatin is currently under examination for its role in regulating muscle grown in mice. While YK11 appears to increase muscle mass similar to testosterone, according to the Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin published in 2013, YK11 doesn’t have the detrimental side effects commonly experienced with testosterone, but in studies with lab animals it was shown to be as good as testosterone in terms of muscle building and strengthening. Studies show YK11 side effects to involve body hair growth and enhanced aggression.

YK11 Research Results

In lab studies, YK-11 has been shown to:

  • Increase muscle mass and strength
  • Inhibit myostatin
  • Have minimal side effects

Where to Buy YK11

If you are a researcher or chemist and would like to conduct your own studies using the SARM YK11, you’ll want to know where you can buy it. The internet is the easiest place to order research chemicals including YK11. Peptides Warehouse offers YK11 and a combo pack of YK11 and Rad 140, another research chemical at affordable prices. Peptides Warehouse is a trusted provider of research chemicals and peptides and partners with manufacturers of a wide variety of research peptides made in the USA in order to provide the highest quality SARMS and peptides available at the lowest prices for your research needs.

What is Bacteriostatic Water

Bacteriostatic water is a highly purified, sterilized water used to dissolve medications or dilute medications to the appropriate consistency for injection. Bacteriostatic water (BW) is a sterilized water that contains .9% benzyl alcohol and has a pH of about 5.7. The alcohol in the water helps prevent the growth of most forms of bacteria which makes it ideal for diluting any drug that will be administered by intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous injection.

Bacteriostatic water is not used for neonatal medications because it contains benzyl alcohol, which is toxic, and can cause blood pressure changes in babies under four weeks of age. BW for injection is provided in unpressurized, 30 mL plastic vials, specially formulated from polyolefin. It is a copolymer of propylene and ethylene, and is considered safe plastic according to USP biological standards for plastic containers and the animal testing which took place to confirm its safety. The plastic container for bacteriostatic water doesn’t require a vapor barrier to maintain the proper volume.

Most sources recommend that bacteriostatic water is used within 28 days of opening the vial. The preservatives will allow it to keep safely for up to 30 days.

Potential Side Effects of Bacteriostatic Water

There are not many side effects associated with using bacteriostatic water. When there are side effects, it’s probably more related to the drug that is dissolved in the bacteriostatic water, or some sort of contamination of the water prior to use.
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What Are Peptides?

Peptides are found in living organisms and are made of short chains of amino acid molecules, linked together by amide bonds. Dipeptides consist of two amino acids linked by a single amide bond. Tripeptides are three amino acids linked together with amide bonds, while polypeptides are long chains of peptides linked together.

Peptides and proteins are usually distinguished based on their size. Peptides have 50 or fewer amino acids, while proteins are made up of one or more polypeptides. The size boundaries are not absolute, however, and there is some overlap and discrepancies involved in whether or not something is considered a peptide or a protein. Some long peptides are called proteins, while some smaller proteins can be considered peptides.

Peptides and Body Functions

All life requires peptides in order to exist. Peptides occur naturally within every living cell of every living being and perform a variety of essential functions. Peptides produce enzymes that allow bodies to break down foreign substances; hormones to control growth and sexual development; and create antibiotics for the immune system.

Peptide Drug Research

Research of peptides is required for the development of new medications. Research of peptides may be performed on naturally occurring peptides, or on synthetically produced peptides. When research peptides are developed synthetically, they can help patients with immune functionality and the production of hormones. Synthetic peptides can positively impact the function of your body’s creation of natural peptides. Many scientists and researchers study the effects of various peptides on test subjects in labs to discover new possibilities for treating ailments and improving the quality of life.

Common Research Peptides

There are a number of peptides that are commonly researched in laboratories with rats or primates, including but not limited to:
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How to Use GHRP-6 for Research

The hexapeptide GHRP-6, is a Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide, and consists of a chain of six amino acids. GHRP-6 is in the same category of peptides as GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, and Hexarelin. It is a man-made secretagogue, which means it is a substance that causes the secretion of another substance. Secretagogues are used widely in clinical activities and research. GHRP-6 is also considered a protein hormone, and has been shown cause a reaction with the ghrelin receptor, which communicates with the pituitary gland to begin releasing growth hormone.

GHRP-6 Research Results

GHRP-6 is a fairly new compound that has not been legally approved for use over the counter or for medical purposes yet. The hexapeptide is undergoing medical trials to determine the effects of GHRP-6 and whether or not it is useful for health. Some of the studies are testing saturation levels for dosage and usage. Currently, studies show the peptide has variations in its half-life duration that ranges between a quarter hour to an hour, with the increase in GH levels maximizing about half an hour after use.

Historically, scientists and researchers have chosen to study GHRP-6 for its ability to produce growth hormone, which in turn can reduce fat and increase lean body mass. When the GH levels are increased, IGF-1 will also increase. The protein has been shown in studies of lab rats to decrease weight, increase energy, help heal physical injuries, and reduce inflammation. But more recently, research has expanded as it was discovered the peptide has more properties and potential benefits than just the ability to increase GH levels. More research needs to take place to learn about the other properties of this peptide and what benefits it may offer in the future.

Recent studies have begun testing the neuroprotective effects of GHRP-6. It is thought that the peptide assists in removing faulty cells from the organism through the caspase-independent pathway. In the studies, the glutamate-induced cell death was altered by GHRP-6, which shows the neuroprotectivity of the peptide as it blocks the caspase-independent cell death.

Chemical Information for GHRP-6

GHRP-6 has a molecular formula of C46H56N12O6. Its systematic name is L-histidyl-D-tryptophyl-L-alanyl-L-tryptophyl-D-phenylalanyl-L-Lysinamide.
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Functionality and Benefits of Igf-1 des

Igf-1 des is a peptide secreted by the liver and consists of 67 amino acids. Igf-1 des stimulates hormones as it is a highly anabolic structure. In living organisms, Igf-1 des offers a number of benefits and is responsible for creating hyperplasia (or hypergensis). It is important to note that Igf-1 des can also cause negative side effects, which we will also discuss in this article.

What Does Igf-1 des Do?

Igf-1 creates hyperplasia, which is a process that regulates the growth of cells. The need for increased cells come as a result of any of the following cases:

• Response to chronic inflammation – cells multiply to help the body reduce inflammation.
• Response to hormonal dysfunction – cells multiply to fight off conditions that could cause improper functioning of the endocrine system.
• Compensate for skin loss – cells multiply to create a new layer of skin.
• Compensate for cellular loss – cells multiple to replace cells lost due to damage and disease.

Igf-1 des Scientific Research

Scientific research involving Igf-1 des indicates the peptide is also capable of influencing neurological growth, maintain nerve cell function, and promote nerve growth. It’s ability to create hyperplasia leads scientists to use animals for researching the ability of Igf-1 des in relation to growing cells and the development of tissue. Studies show that Igf-1 des has the capability to influence the neuronal structure and functions of the brain, and continuing animal studies are watching the peptide’s effects on muscular and skeletal growth.
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How to Properly Store Peptides

When you receive your peptides you will want to make sure you know how to properly store peptides to prolong their lifespan and ensure the stability of your product. While peptides can remain stable at room temperature for a few days to a couple weeks, for the best preservation, it is recommended that you store your peptides in the refrigerator at 4°C or colder, inside an airtight container such as a sealed freezer bag, and out of direct, bright, light.

Your airtight container (or vial) should be clear and resistant to chemical breakdown. Choose a size that is appropriate for the amount of peptide you will be storing, and make sure the container is strong enough to withstand being moved around in storage or when taken out for use. Most researchers select glass containers, although some forms of plastic is suitable for storing peptides.

Keep Your Peptides Dry

If your peptides are contaminated by moisture the long term stability of solid peptides will be greatly decreased. When you use some of the peptide, take the storage container from your refrigerator and allow it to come to room temperature before you open the container. Weigh the required quantity of peptide for your experiment quickly.  This reduces the amount of moisture that comes from opening the cold surface of the container and exposing the contents to the warmer air of the room.

After you have removed the desired quantity of your peptide, reseal your vial tightly, place inside a sealed freezer bag, and return to the refrigerator or other dry, cold storage.

Storage of Peptide Sequences With C, M, or W

Peptide sequences containing C, M, or W are affected negatively by air oxidation. Remove the air from the vial and replace with a blanket of argon or nitrogen to prolong the lifespan of these peptides and ensure their reliability for your research purposes.
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How to Mix Peptides

Wondering how to mix peptides? Before getting started, make sure you have the following four items: peptide vial, 1ml insulin syringe, Bacteriostatic Water, and alcohol swabs.

Insulin syringes are available in multiple sizes, including .3ml, .5ml, and 1ml. If you try to use a smaller syringe (.3ml or .5ml) you will need to repeat the process of filling the syringe multiple times. It is must easier and efficient to use a 1ml insulin syringe.

Here’s what you need to know about the process of mixing peptides:

Keep Your Powder Peptide Vials Cold

Put your powder peptide vials in the refrigerator for storage so they stay cold. The freezer may damage the peptide. Store your mixed solution in the refrigerator as well as it will prolong its lifespan for weeks or months, depending on the peptide.

Swab Vial Top

Before drawing out the dose, swab the top of the vial with an alcohol swab and wait about one minute after swabbing. You don’t want any contaminates changing the results of your research.

Vent Air

When mixing the solution into your peptide vial, twist off the pin top while still inside the vial for a split second, to vent out air pressure, and then pull out the pin top.
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How to Tell if you are Buying Your Research Peptides From a Reputable Company

Research chemicals are growing in popularity as people like to experiment with peptides in their home or work labs. They should be handled by licensed, expert professionals. Understand that peptides are not cosmetics or a food, and they are mostly used for laboratory experiments and in Vito testing.

You can buy research peptides online from many peptide suppliers, but when it comes to buying research peptides it’s important to know you’re buying from a reputable company. You need to know that you can repeat your tests and experiments to get reliable results each and every time.  The quality and purity of your peptide supplies matter to the accuracy of your experiments.

Here is how to tell if you are buying your research peptides from a reputable company:

The Company Has Purity Results Available

Reputable research peptide companies test their products to guarantee the grade of peptide their customers receive.  The testing should be completed on each new batch of peptides received, so they ensure customers are getting the grade of peptides ordered. A reputable company will supply test results for you if you ask for them, and some will publish the results right on their website. A certificate of purity results of the company’s own lab testing should be available to anyone who asks about the quality of the peptides before making a purchase.

You’re Buying From the USA

When it comes to research peptides, the United States has higher purity and safety standards than most any other country in the world. If you want to ensure the research testing you perform is both safe and accurate, make sure you buy from a United States peptide supplier.

Reputable Peptide Suppliers Only Sell for Research Purposes

When reviewing the website of a peptide supplier, you should see a notation that the company only sells peptides for research purposes and that the products are not intended for human consumption.
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Differences Between Long and Short Peptide Chains

Peptides are chains of amino acid monomers linked by covalent bonds. Peptides can mimic the biological functionality of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, which means they can be used to enhance or repair the biological functions of tissues in living organisms. Peptides are responsible for a large role within a specific subset of biomimetic materials – substances that are created from elements that occur in nature without human interference. When it comes to tissue engineering, the process that cells, engineering, and materials are combined can lead to enhancement, repair, or replacement of biological functions of tissues in living organisms.

There are two groups of peptide chains: long peptide chains and short peptide chains. Long peptide chains are also called proteins, or polypeptides, while short chain peptides may also be referred to as ogliopeptides. Long and short peptides share similar traits, including the secretion of hormones essential to the mechanics and operations of living organisms, but they also have unique behaviors. What are the differences between long and short peptide chains?

Long Chain Peptides

The long chain peptide, or polypeptide, is made up of between 10 and 100 amino acids linked together chemically. They can fold themselves into three-dimensional shapes and have a molecular weight up to 10,000 grams per mole. In living organisms, long chain peptides (proteins) are the core components of the basic biological processes. Long chain peptides perform the following functions:
• Enzyme catalysis – to maintain biological efficiency, enzyme catalysis is the process of controlling the speed of chemical reaction by specialized proteins.
• DNA replication – all living organisms inherit DNA that is created by this process of creating two identical copies from a single DNA molecule.
• Cell signaling – communication system to regulate and control the cellular activities and coordinates the action of the cell.
The size of long chain peptides creates more instability than short chain peptides. The physical structure undergoes many processes that could cause a breakdown of the peptide, including:
• Hydrolysis – when water is added to the chemical bonds, they divide.
• Racemiztion – a pure mixture with a single enantiomer changes to a mixture with multiple entantiomers.

Short Chain Peptides

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Buy LGD-4033 for scientific research

The peptide LGD-4033 is a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM). Using LGD-4033 in scientific laboratory studies with animals, this peptide bonds with androgen receptor ligands. Testing has shown LGD-4033 is highly active within the muscle tissues and muscles. Specifically, the LGD-4033 peptide assists in the repair and the growth of muscular tissues in animal test subjects.

LGD-4033, Muscles, and Bones

Laboratory studies with LGD-4033 indicate the peptide has the ability to selectively target the androgen receptors in tissues and does so differently in each type of tissue. LGD-4033 has shown a different reaction concerning muscles than it does with bone. As the peptide is highly selective, it is believed the peptide can assist processes like the growth of bones and the skeletal system as well as muscles with a much faster rate than as occurs naturally.

Due to LGD-4033’s ability to increase the growth of muscle tissue, additional animal test studies have shown this peptide to be effective in treating specific conditions related to the wasting away of muscles. These conditions include:

  • Frality

A geriatric syndrome which describes the increased risk of a catastrophic decline in health affecting older adults. It is a common part of the advanced aging process and is also associated with chronic medical conditions like diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  • Sarcopenia

This is a condition resulting in the degenerative loss of mass and strength of the skeletal muscles, related to the natural aging process.

  • Cachexia

This is a medical condition also known as ‘wasting syndrome’ which results in the loss of body mass. Symptoms include muscle atrophy, weakness, fatigue, loss of weight, and a significant loss of appetite. The loss of lean body mass is also a symptom of cachexia.
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