What is Avanafil?

Avanafil is a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). It moderates the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as it breaks down and relaxes blood vessel muscles to enhance blood flow to certain areas of the body and is widely used as an erectile dysfunction treatment. Avanafil is a comparably new PDE5 inhibitor that was approved for use in the US by the FDA in 2012 and by EMA in 2013.

Developed by Vivus Inc., avanafil is also known by the trademark names Spedra and Stendra. It performs by inhibiting PDE5 mainly in the corpus cavernosim penis, which allows the majority of users to conduct sexual activity within 15 minutes of consumption. This is considered to be quite fast in comparison to other PDE5 inhibitors on the market. Maximum concentration is reached in around 30-45 minutes.

The recommended dosage of Avanafil is 100 mg for a single dose on an as needed basis, taken one half hour prior to sexual activity. Avanafil is ready for consumption in tablets of 50, 100 and 200 mg. Based on the effects on the user and their tolerance level, dosage can be adjusted, with a maximum recommendation of 200 mg. If users believe they have overdosed on avanafil, emergency medical attention should be sought or the Poison Control Center should be called.
Continue reading

What is Albuterol?

Albuterol, also known by the name salbutamol, is a medication widely used to treat breathing problems, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was discovered by a team in 1966 that was headed by David Jack, in England, and it was released in 1969 as Ventolin. Albuterol works by opening up the medium and large airways in the lungs by acting as a short-term β2 adrenergic receptor agonist that makes the smooth muscles of the airway relax. In some cases, it is also used to care for high potassium levels in the blood. Albuterol is commonly administered via nebulizer or inhaler. Once inhaled, the effects begin with 15 minutes and can last two to six hours.

In less common instances, albuterol is administered as an intravenous solution or pill. This is when the drug is used in the field of obstetrics to delay premature labor. In its IV form, albuterol may be used to relax the uterine smooth muscle as a totolytic. Acute hyperkalemia has been treated by albuterol because of the ay it stimulates the flow of potassium into cells, which lowers its level in the blood.

Generally, albuterol has been found to be well-tolerated and any negative effects are aligned with its pharmacological activity. How severe these effects are depend on how the drug is administered and the dosage. When given via a metered dose inhaler, there have been found to be less systemic effects than when higher doses have been administered by nebulizer or orally.

 
Continue reading

What is Anastrozole?

Anastrozole is a drug that reversibly attaches to the aromatase enzyme and stops the conversion of androgens to estrogens through competitive inhibition in external gonadal tissues. Simply put, it blocks the production of estrogen. Because of this mechanism, anastrozole is used as a medication to treat breast cancer, especially for breast cancer found to be hormone-receptor positive. Anastrozole has also been used as a preventative treatment for those who have been found to be high risk for breast cancer. The medication works by reducing estrogen hormone levels to aid in the shrinking of tumors as well as slow their growth.

After trials, anastrozole was shown to be the drug preferred to treat postmenopausal women who have localized breast cancer. A 40% reduced risk of occurrence was found in estrogen receptor (ER) positive patients, who also benefited from changing from tamoxifen to anastrozole after having finished two years of adjuvant tamoxifen. It is critical to the patient’s safety that they tell their doctor or pharmacist of any allergies to medications or otherwise.

 

Anastrozole is a medication that is taken orally and has been in medical use since 1995, eight years after it was patented, in 1987. It is considered an effective and safe medicine necessary in a health system and is included on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. Anastrozole is also put out as a generic medicine and is sold under the name Armidex. It is to be used with women who are postmenopausal in addition to any initial treatment, such as surgery with or without radiation. It is important that anastrozole not be taken with any estrogen-containing therapies or tamoxifen. Anastrozole has 83-85% bioavailability, is 40% protein binding, and has a biological half life of 48.2 h.
Continue reading

What is Cabergoline and How Does It Work?

Cabergoline is a top ergot derivative liquid being used for research that scientists are continuing to learn a great deal from. Rats are the test subject displaying the most positive results when it comes to studying Cabergoline’s effects.  The study results develop rapidly, enabling researchers the need to only slightly alter their experiments to discover more about what the liquid does to the body of the research subject. The knowledge of the advantages of Cabergoline is literally expanding with every experiment that is executed.

 

Findings and Specifics and of Cabergoline

Researchers up to this point know that the half-life of Cabergoline is between 63 and 69 hours, which lets scientists carry out long-term experiments and observe how varying test subjects and their cells respond to interactions with it. As this liquid begins to decompose before it evacuates the body, research shows that most of the remains are discharged within the subject’s feces, as opposed to its urine. The liquid has a slow elimination time, which is likely due to its prolonged prolactin-lowering effect. This is also what most likely contributes to the long half-life. In rats, Cabergoline does not lead to enzyme induction and/or inhibition. When used in studies with adults as subjects, the kinetics of Cabergoline were not altered by food.

Not enough information has been acquired to know whether or not Cabergoline is safe during pregnancy, therefore those experiments have not happened up to this point. So far, rats that are lactating have shown the liquid to cross over into their milk, deterring researchers from experimenting with humans during lactation. When studies did take place during lactation with female rats, results showed Cabergoline suppressed their milk production due to its prolactin-lowering ability.

 

Cabergoline Interactions

Continue reading

Benefits and Side Effects of S4 Andarine and SR9009

For improve muscle strength and stamina, researchers have turned to S4 and SR9009. Countless studies have been conducted in various populations to investigate the rewarding effects of these SARMS and how they improve overall health and aging.

About S4 (Andarine)

S4 is a SARM, selective androgen receptor modulator, that targets specific tissue for maximum productivity. The therapeutic compounds is used for medical research only to discover its many benefits for improving muscle mass, which is caused by muscle-wasting diseases, and bone density. SARMS are highly desired because they don’t have the same effects as anabolic agents like steroids that cause increased facial hair growth, back hair, voice changes, and breasts in men.

 

Benefits of S4 (Andarine)

S4 is for medical use and research only. Researchers have investigated the many benefits of S4 as a therapy to improve muscle health and bone density. The research targeted not just the muscle and bone itself, but the overall body pathways that control muscles and bone (Girgis, et. al.) Reported benefits of selective androgen receptor modules (SARMs) such as S4 (Andarine) when used for medical research only are:

  • Improved lean muscle mass (when treating for muscle wasting disease)
  • Increased bone density
  • Increased strength in men
  • No side-effects experienced as with anabolic steroids
  • Targeted treatments for specific needs and muscle-building demands
  • Preservation of bone mass
  • Improved body composition
  • Improved spermatogenesis (Chen, et. al.)

 

Side Effects and Risks of S4

Continue reading

The Inside Scoop About RAD 140 SARM

Exactly how rad is RAD 140? In research trials, this SARM acts a lot like an anabolic steroid (testosterone) and pro-hormone. In lab studies with animals, RAD 140 has been shown to:

  • Enhance speed
  • Increase stamina
  • Increase endurance
  • Build muscle faster

In testing, RAD 140 has a higher anabolic effect than testosterone, while limiting the number of negative effects the test subject experienced. Testosterone typically causes a number of undesirable side effects along with the benefits, and RAD 140 test results are showing fewer side effects but the same positive results for muscle building and endurance. In some studies, hair growth and an increase in hormones in the body were found after giving lab rats RAD 140.

What’s a SARM?

A SARM is an androgen receptor ligand, which means it binds to the androgen receptor in your body. Research with SARMs started in the 1940s when the testosterone molecule was modified for use to decrease obesity and ensure bone health was at optimum levels. SARMs were created as a way to fight diseases that cause muscle wasting without causing the side effects associated with steroid usage.

Potential Uses for RAD 140

Continue reading

Rare YK11 Compound is a SARM

What are SARMs? Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators = SARMs. Androgens are hormones that act as molecules or ions to bind to the cellular androgen receptors and the receptors are involved in transmitting complex signals that result in greater expressions of specific genes. When bodybuilders, athletes, or people with muscle wasting diseases ranging from cancer to osteoporosis partake in anabolic steroids to increase their muscles, the binding of androgen hormones to the androgen receptor is what results in more muscle and decreased body fat. Drugs and substances that block or stimulate the androgen receptor are called “selective receptor modulators”.

YK11 is a rate compound that was first studied by researcher Yuichiro Kanno of Toho University in 2011. Initial studies confirmed that the compound is in fact a SARM. YK11 attaches to the androgen receptor. Kanno’s published report of the results from this study exposed that muscle cells exposed to YK11 create more anabolic effects at 500 nanomoles than when exposed to DHT and other similar compounds at the same amount.

Chemical Composition of YK11

yk11-sarm-chemical

Research Chemical: YK-11

YK-11 is researched heavily in Japan by researchers and chemists determined to find out what the potential benefits of the SARM may be for future human use in pharmaceutical products. Initial studies have discovered that YK11 is a potent SARM in terms of creating anabolic effects in the body that lead to muscle enhancement while inhibiting myostatin effects. The potential for YK11 to be used in the treatment of diseases causing muscle waste is something researchers are considering further.

YK11 is Similar to Testosterone

Continue reading

What is Bacteriostatic Water

Bacteriostatic water is a highly purified, sterilized water used to dissolve medications or dilute medications to the appropriate consistency for injection. Bacteriostatic water (BW) is a sterilized water that contains .9% benzyl alcohol and has a pH of about 5.7. The alcohol in the water helps prevent the growth of most forms of bacteria which makes it ideal for diluting any drug that will be administered by intramuscular, intravenous, or subcutaneous injection.

Bacteriostatic water is not used for neonatal medications because it contains benzyl alcohol, which is toxic, and can cause blood pressure changes in babies under four weeks of age. BW for injection is provided in unpressurized, 30 mL plastic vials, specially formulated from polyolefin. It is a copolymer of propylene and ethylene, and is considered safe plastic according to USP biological standards for plastic containers and the animal testing which took place to confirm its safety. The plastic container for bacteriostatic water doesn’t require a vapor barrier to maintain the proper volume.

Most sources recommend that bacteriostatic water is used within 28 days of opening the vial. The preservatives will allow it to keep safely for up to 30 days.

Potential Side Effects of Bacteriostatic Water

There are not many side effects associated with using bacteriostatic water. When there are side effects, it’s probably more related to the drug that is dissolved in the bacteriostatic water, or some sort of contamination of the water prior to use.
Continue reading

What Are Peptides?

Peptides are found in living organisms and are made of short chains of amino acid molecules, linked together by amide bonds. Dipeptides consist of two amino acids linked by a single amide bond. Tripeptides are three amino acids linked together with amide bonds, while polypeptides are long chains of peptides linked together.

Peptides and proteins are usually distinguished based on their size. Peptides have 50 or fewer amino acids, while proteins are made up of one or more polypeptides. The size boundaries are not absolute, however, and there is some overlap and discrepancies involved in whether or not something is considered a peptide or a protein. Some long peptides are called proteins, while some smaller proteins can be considered peptides.

Peptides and Body Functions

All life requires peptides in order to exist. Peptides occur naturally within every living cell of every living being and perform a variety of essential functions. Peptides produce enzymes that allow bodies to break down foreign substances; hormones to control growth and sexual development; and create antibiotics for the immune system.

Peptide Drug Research

Research of peptides is required for the development of new medications. Research of peptides may be performed on naturally occurring peptides, or on synthetically produced peptides. When research peptides are developed synthetically, they can help patients with immune functionality and the production of hormones. Synthetic peptides can positively impact the function of your body’s creation of natural peptides. Many scientists and researchers study the effects of various peptides on test subjects in labs to discover new possibilities for treating ailments and improving the quality of life.

Common Research Peptides

There are a number of peptides that are commonly researched in laboratories with rats or primates, including but not limited to:
Continue reading

How to Use GHRP-6 for Research

The hexapeptide GHRP-6, is a Growth Hormone Releasing Peptide, and consists of a chain of six amino acids. GHRP-6 is in the same category of peptides as GHRP-2, Ipamorelin, and Hexarelin. It is a man-made secretagogue, which means it is a substance that causes the secretion of another substance. Secretagogues are used widely in clinical activities and research. GHRP-6 is also considered a protein hormone, and has been shown cause a reaction with the ghrelin receptor, which communicates with the pituitary gland to begin releasing growth hormone.

GHRP-6 Research Results

GHRP-6 is a fairly new compound that has not been legally approved for use over the counter or for medical purposes yet. The hexapeptide is undergoing medical trials to determine the effects of GHRP-6 and whether or not it is useful for health. Some of the studies are testing saturation levels for dosage and usage. Currently, studies show the peptide has variations in its half-life duration that ranges between a quarter hour to an hour, with the increase in GH levels maximizing about half an hour after use.

Historically, scientists and researchers have chosen to study GHRP-6 for its ability to produce growth hormone, which in turn can reduce fat and increase lean body mass. When the GH levels are increased, IGF-1 will also increase. The protein has been shown in studies of lab rats to decrease weight, increase energy, help heal physical injuries, and reduce inflammation. But more recently, research has expanded as it was discovered the peptide has more properties and potential benefits than just the ability to increase GH levels. More research needs to take place to learn about the other properties of this peptide and what benefits it may offer in the future.

Recent studies have begun testing the neuroprotective effects of GHRP-6. It is thought that the peptide assists in removing faulty cells from the organism through the caspase-independent pathway. In the studies, the glutamate-induced cell death was altered by GHRP-6, which shows the neuroprotectivity of the peptide as it blocks the caspase-independent cell death.

Chemical Information for GHRP-6

GHRP-6 has a molecular formula of C46H56N12O6. Its systematic name is L-histidyl-D-tryptophyl-L-alanyl-L-tryptophyl-D-phenylalanyl-L-Lysinamide.
Continue reading