What is Exemestane?

Exemestane is a medication regularly used to treat and prevent certain types of breast cancer in women who have stopped menstruating due to menopause.  It is an oral medication that works to decrease the amount of estrogen that the body makes and helps to slow or reverse the growth of some types of breast cancers.  It is typically used to treat hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. Some cancers grow and spread faster by the amount of estrogen that is produced in the body. This medication works to lower estrogen levels and may slow down the growth of some tumors that form in the breast. It is also often used to treat women who have been through cancer treatments including radiation or surgery, or who have tried other cancer medications that have not been effective. The brand name for exemestane is Aromasin.

Exemestane is not typically used to treat women of childbearing age and is not a safe choice for everyone, even if they have the same illness. It is possible that potential users may have to have a pregnancy test that comes back negative before starting this medication.  Exemestane can cause birth defects. The drug should not be taken by pregnant women or those who are still menstruating and have not gone through menopause. Your medical provider will know the best course of treatment for your circumstance.

In those unusual cases that do exist that exemestane is used to treat women who are not yet past menopause, birth control should be used during the use of exemestane and for a least one month after the last dose of the medication.  It is important to share your information with your doctor before you consider this medication for breast cancer treatment, and also if you do become pregnant. It is unknown if exemestane passes into breast milk, so it is not advised to breastfeed while on exemestane. Exemestane can pass through body fluids such as urine, vomit, and feces. Anyone caring for someone using this medication should practice universal precautions and clean soiled items separately.
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What is LGD-4033?

LGD-4033 is a non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) that is unique in the world of SARMs as it is the only SARM to have been researched in clinical trials for use by healthy, human men. LGD-4033 research studies are trying to verify whether or not LGD-4033 would be safe for use by men, particularly athletes looking to increase the size of their muscle and gain improved athletic performance abilities. The world of professional sports is no stranger to the use of SARMs, including LGD-4033. Joakim Noah from the Knicks basketball team was once suspended for twenty games due to having LGD-4033 in his system, as it is an unapproved health supplement under the rules of the NBA.

 

What Do SARMs Do?

Selective androgen receptor modulators act on the androgen receptor gene. When activated, it will bind to androgenic hormones like testosterone, DHEA, and DHT. The androgen receptor has a few responsibilities in the bodies of both males and females. In males, androgens are responsible for the testosterone hormone that promotes masculinity, including muscle growth and a healthy sex drive. In females, the androgen receptor regulates the growth of hair and sex drive, and can be converted to estrogen in the ovaries.
LGD-4033 is a SARM with the possibility for treating hormone related concerns such as loss of muscle and aging-related diseases. In the past, these diseases and muscle wasting conditions would be treated with testosterone, which will improve muscle wasting, some cancer conditions, and aging-related diseases – but it also affects brain activity and hormones with unwanted side effects. SARMs like LGD-4033 may be able to deliver the anabolic benefits of testosterone without the hormonal side effects since SARMS are selective in their binding nature whereas testosterone is not.
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What is Clenbuterol?

Clenbuterol is a drug commonly used for those who suffer from breathing disorders. Also marketed as Ventipulmin, Dilaterol and Spiropent, clenbuterol is a sympathomimetic amine that acts as a bronchodilator and decongestant. The most common form it comes in is clenbuterol hydrochloride, which is a hydrochloride salt. Clenbuterol has similar structural and pharmaceutical properties as salbutamol and epinephrine. It is a β2 agonist with effects that are longer lasting and more potent as a stimulant and thermogenic drug.

Clenbuterol is often used by patients with chronic breathing disorders, such as asthma and obstructive pulmonary disease, as a bronchodilator to make it easier to breathe. It creates a heightened aerobic capacity, an increase in blood pressure and central nervous system stimulation as well as better oxygen transportation. The rate at which body fat is metabolized increases with clenbuterol as well as basal metabolic rate. It is most often used because of its properties of being a smooth muscle-relaxant and as a tocolytic and bronchodilator. Clenbuterol works by binding to muscle cells and stimulating muscle protein synthesis.

Because it s used as a bronchodilator for chronic breathing disease treatment, clenbuterol is useful in reducing exercise-induced asthma. Studies from the 1980’s revealed that it guards against exercise-induced asthma and does not cause adverse effects on the body’s cardiovascular system. However, it has not been found to enhance cardiovascular performance in heathy people. It has surprisingly been shown to lower exercise duration and endurance, contrary to popular belief.
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What is Matrixyl?

Two branches of dermatological research lead to the discovery of Matrixyl. One branch was researching substances that would help skin wounds heal faster, and the other was a study for the underlying causes of wrinkles in an effort to find a way to prevent or erase them. The Matrixyl synthetic peptide is commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products designed to reduce or prevent wrinkles and maintain a youthful appearance to the skin. Peptides are protein fragments that interact and affect cells. When used in cosmetics, Matrixyl is often combined with Argireline. The peptide Argireline reduces the appearance of wrinkles by paralyzing the muscles of the face a bit, so there are fewer expression lines, while Matrixyl works to promote the growth of collagen, elastin, and glucosaminoglycans.

Matrixyl Scientific Information

Molecular Formula: C39H75N7O10

Molecular Sequence: Pal-Lys-Thr-Thr-Ser-OH or Pal-KTTS-OH

Also known as: almitoyl pentapeptide-3

 

Because Matrixyl is a molecule that is identical to another molecule but has different atomic components, it is considered an isomer. The active element found within Matrixyl is another peptide called Micro-collagen. Matrixyl is also a lipopeptide, which is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids.
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What is Snap 8?

Snap 8 is an octapeptide strand of eight amino acids that is studied for its potential to prevent the formation of wrinkles and lines on faces. The peptide is created by the cosmetic company Kinerase, and is considered 30% more effective than Argireline.

 

Who is Kinerase?

Kinerase is a cosmetic line of products that are designed to make skin look and feel younger and healthier. Kinerase products contain both over-the-counter and cosmetic ingredients, including Snap 8, and do not require a prescription to obtain.

 

What is Argireline?

Snap 8 is an elongation of the hexapeptide, acetyl hexapeptide-3, otherwise known as Argireline. It’s been nicknamed the “anti-wrinkle peptide”. Argireline is a peptide that prevents the formation of wrinkles around the eyes, brow, nose, and mouth – all of the areas of the face that allow us to make expressions and display emotion. How does it prevent wrinkles and lines? Argireline inhibits muscle movement, and has earned the name “Botox in a jar” as a result – but Botox and Argireline work differently.
Botox boosts collagen and helps repair skin to reduce lines and wrinkles. Argireline and Snap 8 work by mimicking the proteins found in the SNARE complex and destabilizing it to prevent muscle movement. If you can’t frown, you won’t have wrinkles from frowning.
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Pramipexole Dihydrochloride

 

Makeup

Pramipexole dihydrochloride is something relatively new to the general populous.  The FDA recently released some guidance compliance information as a piece of regulation as the substance floods into modern medicine.  As time marches on, so does medical science.  Pramipexole dihydrochloride has been found to be extremely effective when it comes to wrestles leg syndrome and Parkinson’s disease.  Most commonly, the drug is marketed under the name Mirapex.

Mirapex, the generic brands, and pramipexole dihydrochloride in general is made up firstly of pramipexole.  Pramipexole is a nonergot dopamine agonist that has been found to reduce the effects of early Parkinson’s disease.  Over the course of the past 10 years, pramipexole has become the preferred method of slowing the progression of the horrendous degenerative disorder, of which there is currently no cure.  The medical community is currently trying to tackle other neurological diseases, specifically those without cures, so that relief may be provided for those showing signs of early stages of these diseases.

Hydrochloride, at its very base definition is any hydrochloride formed by the reaction with two molecules of hydrochloric acid.  Combining hydrochloric acid and pramipexole results in the creation of pramipexole dihydrochloride.  Pramipexole dihydrochloride’s mechanism of action when it comes to treatment of neurological disorders is yet unknown!  Studies in animals imply that it can stimulate dopamine receptors in the striatum.  The corpus striatum is the part of your brain that comprises of caudate and lentiform nuclei.  Without this, we lose motor function and other cognitive bits of our body that we take advantage in every day life.
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ACE-031

What is it?

ACE-031 is technically a protein.  It’s categorized in the protein family.  ACE-031 is also called ACVR2B, in many texts.  This protein is currently being tested to see if we can utilize it to build strength in animals and perhaps eventually, in humans.  There have been some promising studies that imply it can be used therapeutically to destroy other proteins and molecules that limit muscle growth and muscle strength.  Since ACE-031 is a human-engineered protein, it’s not actually part of the proteome project.

ACE-031 is actually formed when a bit of the ActRIIB receptor and the antibody are fused together.  This fusion makes a pho version of the ActRIIB that will take down proteins like myostatin and the other types of molecules that prohibit the muscle’s ability to strengthen, regenerate, and grow.  Basically, ACE-031 is used to make muscles not understand that there is a natural period in which we don’t produce muscle mass by blocking out the myostatin, stopping it from communicating with the muscle cells.

 

Effects

Only in the last decade or so has ACE-031 been tested on humans.  In a 2012 study, it was found to increase muscle mass in postmenopausal women after just a single dosing.  For the purpose of this study, it was determined that all of the subjects were “healthy” and didn’t have any form of surgery in the past few months.  There are various reports and studies proving that the use of ACE-031 drastically increases the muscular growth in animals, specifically in mammals.
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What is Raloxifene

Raloxifene is an orally administered selective estrogen receptor modulator. Studies and usage of this drug have concentrated on treating osteoporosis and breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Due to the drug’s selective nature it can have both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects, depending on use. This is what allows raloxifene’s use in treating bone loss or reducing breast tumor mass.

 

What are Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a class of non-steroidal compounds. As their name indicates, they target estrogen receptor modulators. SERMs are part of a larger class of compounds called selective receptor modulators. This category includes selective androgen receptor modulators and selective progesterone receptor modulators.

As their name suggests, SERMs are selective in their action. In comparison to agonists, which produce a biological action, or an antagonist, which blocks a biological action, SERMs can do both. Depending on what tissue a SERM compound is targeting, or what condition it is treating, a SERM will act as either an agonist or antagonist.
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What is Levothyroxine?

Levothyroxine is a medication that replaces the hormone that is naturally produced by the thyroid gland. The thyroid hormone regulates the body’s metabolism and energy levels. In cases where the thyroid gland does not naturally produce enough of this hormone for the body to function properly a medication may be used. The brand names for levothyroxine include levoxyl, synthroid, tirosint and unithroid.

Levothyroxine treats hypothyroidism or what is commonly known as low thyroid. It may also be used to treat other thyroid related problems such as goiter or enlarged thyroid gland. In addition to the natural imbalance in hormones, thyroid conditions may also be caused by other factors such as cancer, surgeries, or radiation treatments. Symptoms that are often seen as a result of a lack of the thyroid hormone may include decreased energy, a low metabolism, dry skin, hair loss and often feeling cold. Balanced thyroid levels are essential for the body to function and perform optimally.

Levothyroxine use can be harmful if a person has certain pervasive medical circumstances or untreated conditions such as signs or symptoms relating to a heart attack, uncontrolled adrenal gland disorder or thyrotoxicosis. Inform your medical providers before starting levothyroxine if you have diabetes, high blood pressure or have experienced excessive hair loss or had symptoms of a heart attack. The regulation of the dosage is essential for safety and the effectiveness of the medication.
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What is Pramipexole?

Pramipexole is a medical compound that activates dopamine receptors in the brain. This allows for the activation of signaling pathways. Dopamine is a naturally occurring chemical in human and animal brains. The chemical serves as a neurotransmitter for bodily messages. It is often associated with reward-motivation behaviors and feelings of joy or satisfaction. However, it is also an important part of the body’s motor functions. Dopamine mediates the release of hormones central to allowing the body’s movement.

Low levels of dopamine are symptomatic of conditions like Parkinson’s disease and Restless Leg Syndrome. Treatment of these conditions often uses medical forms of dopamine agonists, like pramipexole. Multiple studies exist on pramipexole, testing its efficacy in treating Parkinson’s and Restless Leg Syndrome. Studies have also investigated using pramipexole to treat forms of depression and bipolar disorder.[1]

 

What are Dopamine Agonists?

Dopamine agonists are compounds that activate dopamine receptors. This in turn activate signaling pathways. Medicines that aid in the treatment of hypodopaminergic (low dopamine) conditions use these compounds. In comparison to other drugs used to treat low dopamine, such as levodopa, dopamine agonists mimic the effects of dopamine without needing conversion.
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